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Video Lab #7 Respiratory Anatomy & Physiology

TheTV.info
13:30   |   101K+ views   |   09/20/2018 at 20:13

Transcription

  • okay so we're going through the week
  • seven material on the respiratory system
  • and here's our Hemi sect it heads to
  • give you a perspective there's the
  • obvious head side okay and we're turning
  • it basically we have a midsagittal
  • section here okay so there's lots of
  • parts of the brain and the spinal cord
  • that you might remember from AMD one
  • we're going to concentrate on the
  • respiratory structures on this model
  • okay so if we kind of pick it up again
  • and come to this location this is where
  • air is entering the respiratory passages
  • so that is the nostril the more official
  • name for it is the external NER but
  • we're using nostril in the textbook in
  • the lab manual now so the air would have
  • come in I'm going to put the probe in
  • there so you can see coming in so air
  • would be coming into the respiratory
  • passages and remember there would be
  • bone right here okay that nasal septum
  • made up of the perpendicular plate of
  • the ethmoid and the Vollmer that you
  • looked at in A&P one so there'd be
  • another nasal passage over here on this
  • side and we can see once we're in the
  • nasal passages that we have these little
  • shelves of bone that are sticking out
  • creating surface area and these are the
  • nasal Concha okay so we have superior
  • middle and inferior nasal Concha
  • remember that all of the conducting zone
  • organs which are the organs that allow
  • air to eventually get to the respiratory
  • zone are going to help us as far as
  • warming humidifying and cleaning the air
  • as it's moving through so the amount of
  • surface area that you have here in these
  • nasal Concha is going to give you a lot
  • of room to warm moist and clean the air
  • as it's going pass
  • and they also their other name is the
  • turbinates they also increase the
  • turbulence of air as it's going past so
  • that allows it to move around and get
  • thrown into the walls covered with
  • sticky mucus and that helps them to be
  • cleaned significantly we also have
  • attached to the nasal passages by little
  • channels we have these openings which
  • are some of the paranasal sinuses the
  • ones that we can see here are the
  • frontal sinus and the sphenoid sinus
  • okay we'll see a picture in a couple of
  • minutes where we see the other paranasal
  • sinuses but those sinuses help to
  • lighten the skull and they also provide
  • nice resonance chambers for speech and
  • we also have here on the floor of the
  • nasal passages the hard or bony palate
  • made of bone and then we have the soft
  • palate here made of muscle smooth muscle
  • excuse me skeletal muscle what am I
  • saying skeletal muscle and some other
  • can and some connective tissues and then
  • we have this as a location that can
  • elevate when we're swallowing prevent
  • material from coming up into the nasal
  • passages okay then once we get past the
  • nasal passages and the border between
  • the nasal passages and the throat is
  • basically around right here this would
  • be the internal nares okay and then we
  • get to this location which is the
  • pharynx okay the common name for the
  • pharynx would be the throw and the
  • pharynx can be divided into three
  • sections the nasal pharynx which is
  • close to the nasal passages the
  • oropharynx which is close to the oral
  • passages and then the Lorraine go
  • pharynx which is close to the larynx
  • okay there are a number of tonsils in
  • this location the one right here is the
  • Ferengi old on so this is the one that
  • if if it becomes enlarged would be
  • called the adenoid okay right here we
  • have the Palatine tonsil and there'd be
  • a second Palatine console on this side
  • and these are the ones that people refer
  • to as the tonsils as in I had my tonsils
  • out so those are the Palatine tonsils
  • those are the ones that you can see if
  • someone opens their mouth you can see
  • those tonsils in there oral pharynx okay
  • and then we have a tonsil here on the
  • tongue
  • here's most of the mass of the tongue
  • and then right here this would be the
  • area where you have the lingual tonsil
  • okay and linguae is a root meaning
  • related to language like linguistics
  • okay so that's why it's the lingual
  • tonsil
  • okay now as we get to the lingo pharynx
  • we're right next to the larynx okay and
  • this part of the larynx is the
  • epiglottis this is what closes to cover
  • the glottis during swallowing okay and
  • you can see the vocal fold here that
  • vibrates to produce speech and sound
  • okay and then we have the thyroid
  • cartilage here the trachea would be
  • coming off this way
  • and here's the esophagus which we'll be
  • talking about this week in lab okay so
  • when we're in the nasal passages its
  • respiratory only when we get into the
  • nasal pharynx still pretty respiratory
  • only but then once we get into the oral
  • pharynx we have an area that's shared by
  • the respiratory system and the digestive
  • system
  • same thing for the laryngopharynx okay
  • it's an area that's shared by the
  • respiratory system and the digestive
  • system it isn't until you get past
  • Laureen go pharynx that you're now
  • separating air from swallowed material
  • okay all right we have another Hemi
  • sectin head here we can see a lot of the
  • same material so we'll go through that a
  • little more rapidly okay so here is the
  • nostril you can see the probe coming
  • through their nasal passages superior
  • middle and inferior nasal Concha and
  • some of the bone has been cut away so
  • you can see the BES deep to it and the
  • little passageways that connect to the
  • sinuses okay so here's the frontal sinus
  • and the Samoyed sinus again
  • here's the Ferengi Alonso Palatine
  • tonsil and the lingual tonsil
  • Tana tonsils remember are there to help
  • control bacterial populations in the
  • oral and nasal passages and those mucous
  • membranes okay and we have the hard
  • palate and the soft palate the hard
  • palate separates the respiratory
  • passages from the oral cavity here's the
  • epiglottis here's the vocal fold thyroid
  • cartilage and the cricoid cartilage
  • here's the trachea here's the esophagus
  • and then our three sections of the
  • pharynx nasopharynx oropharynx
  • Lorraine go pharynx
  • okay now the models that we have you
  • cannot see the other two paranasal
  • sinuses I have a picture of those for
  • you here here's the frontal sinus that
  • we were looking at previously here's the
  • sphenoid sinus the little one here
  • labeled with the B that has all the
  • little subdivisions that's the ethmoid
  • sinus which is sometimes referred to as
  • the ethmoid air cells and the large one
  • here in red which is the largest of the
  • paranasal sinuses is the maxillary sinus
  • most people know about the frontal and
  • the maxillary because those are the ones
  • that they usually notice if they have
  • any sort of sinus infection or
  • inflammation
  • here's our model of the larynx we'll
  • turn it around to the anterior view
  • first here's the hyoid bone okay and
  • here's the thyroid cartilage okay and
  • that's kind of a shield shaped cartilage
  • this is going to have a more prominent
  • interior component in males that's what
  • actually produces the Adam's apple that
  • you see in males okay the next one
  • inferior Li is the cricoid cartilage
  • okay and as we turn around you can see
  • the cricoid cartilage gets significantly
  • larger as you move to the posterior side
  • of the larynx okay and these two little
  • pyramid shaped cartilages are the
  • written oeid cartilages now the original
  • cartilages are the ones that actually
  • would move the vocal folds so if I pull
  • on these a little bit you can see how
  • those pink structures are moving those
  • pink structures are the vocal folds okay
  • and the space in between them is the
  • glottis okay and so if somebody was
  • being intubated because they needed help
  • with respiration the tube that they
  • would insert would go right here into
  • the glottis to give access to the
  • trachea and that's why the person can't
  • talk when they're intubated
  • okay now what's been broken off of this
  • model is this structure that looks like
  • a tongue but it's not okay and all of
  • the different cartilages we talked about
  • up until this point have been hyaline
  • cartilage this one is the only one
  • that's a different type of cartilage
  • this is the epiglottis this is composed
  • of elastic cartilage and someone tried
  • to make it elastic and make it fold over
  • the glottis but it really wasn't elastic
  • enough and so it broke off that's why
  • it's in a separate piece now okay so we
  • said the job of the epiglottis was to
  • fold over the glottis during swallowing
  • that's preventing any swallowed material
  • from getting through the glottis past
  • the larynx and into the trachea okay so
  • we're going to move to this model we
  • have the structures of the larynx here
  • thyroid cartilage epiglottis vocal fold
  • cricoid cartilage okay and as we get
  • past all of that we get to the trachea
  • okay so you can see the beautiful C
  • shaped cartilage rings and they're not
  • going to be present on the posterior
  • surface we're only going to have smooth
  • muscle and softer more elastic tissues
  • here on the posterior surface okay
  • from the trachea we divide into the
  • primary bronchi you can see the right
  • primary bronchus is short straight and
  • more vertical than the left
  • from the primary bronchus or main
  • bronchus we divide into secondary or
  • lobar bronchi here's one secondary
  • bronchus on the left here's the other
  • one on the left okay they're a little
  • harder to find on the right here's one
  • here and then these two on this side are
  • kind of merge together they're hard to
  • see but there's one here and one here
  • okay and then all the places where you
  • see the little colored tips those would
  • be tertiary or segmental bronchi okay so
  • there's one trachea there's one main
  • bronchus or primary bronchus for each
  • lung there's one secondary bronchus or
  • lobar bronchus for each lobe and then
  • there's one set of tertiary bronchi for
  • each bronchopulmonary segment and that's
  • why they have the other name as the
  • segmental bronchi

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Keywords

Lab with Paradies

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